Review from Fundamentals of Physics-II, Galvanometer to Ammeter and Voltmeter, Meaning of Network, Voltage and Current dividers, Voltage and Current source, Impedance Matching. Network Theorems. Thermionic Emission: Richardson’s equation, Child-Langmuir Law, Brief introduction on Valves, deflection sensitivity in electric and magnetic fields, Cathode Ray Oscilloscope, Lissajous figures.
Basic concepts of semiconductors, conduction and doping, PN junction, diode characteristics, forward bias, reverse bias, static and dynamic resistance, junction capacitance, equivalent circuit, Zener and avalanche breakdown, Heterojunction; Diode circuits - Rectifiers half wave and full wave efficiency and ripple factor, Voltage multiplier, clipper and clamper circuits.
Bipolar Junction transistor, the transistor action, transistor current components, Modes of operation, common base, common emitter and common collector configurations, Current voltage characteristics of CB, CE, CC configuration, current gain , and Early effect, DC load line, Q-point, saturation and cut-off regions;
Transistor biasing - Base bias, Emitter bias, Transistor switch, Voltage divider bias, Self bias, Collector feedback bias. Stability factor. Field Effect Transistors, MOSFET, HEMT and MOSFET as Capacitor. AC Models - ac resistance of the emitter diode, ac input impedance, ac load-line, ac-equivalent circuits - T- model, π-model.
Amplifier: types with uses, Transistor as an amplifier using h-parameters, comparison of amplifier configurations, simplified h-model; Voltage amplifiers voltage gain, DC, RC, transformer coupled amplifiers, frequency response of RC coupled amplifiers, cascading CE & CC amplifiers, Darlington pair. Feedback: Positive and negative feedback-advantages of negative feedback-input and output resistances-voltage series and current series feedback-frequency response of amplifiers with and without feedback. Power amplifiers - Class A, Class B, Class C amplifiers, Push pull amplifiers. Oscillators, Wien bridge oscillator, Colpitt oscillator, phase shift oscillator, resonant circuit oscillators, crystal oscillator.
Operational Amplifier: characteristics, applications like adder, differentiator, integrator, and voltage comparator.