Minor in Physics | Department of Physics

Minor in Physics

Key Information

Department 
Physics
School 
School of Natural Sciences (SoNS)
Contact 
Prof. Samarendra Pratap Singh
0120-3819100, Ext: 218
samarendra.singh@snu.edu.in

Minimum Credits for Minor Degree in Physics = 22 for Engineering major. 

Compulsory courses 

PHY 201 - Fundamentals of Thermal Physics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)​
PHY 207 - Abridged course for Minor students; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 202 - Introduction to Quantum Mechanics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 208 - Advanced Experimental Physics - I; Credit 3 (1:0:2)

Two courses from the following three groups (with no more than one course from a group)

Group A

PHY 301- Classical Mechanics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 303- Classical Electrodynamics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 305 - Quantum Mechanics – I; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 307 - Electronics - II; Credit 4 (2:1:1)

Group B

PHY 302 - Statistical Physics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 304 - Condensed Matter Physics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 306 - Quantum Mechanics – II; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 308 - Advanced Experimental Physics - II; Credit 3 (1:0:2)

Group C

PHY 4XX/5XX* - Physics Elective; Credit 3 (3:0:0) (*For details see course catalogue)

Minimum Credits for Minor Degree in Physics = 28 for Non-Engineering major.

PHY 103 - Fundamentals of Physics – I; Credit 5 (3:1:1)
PHY 201 - Fundamentals of Thermal Physics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 104 - Fundamentals of Physics – II; Credit 5 (3:1:1)
PHY 202 - Introduction to Quantum Mechanics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 208 - Advanced Experimental Physics I; Credit 3 (1:0:2)

Two courses from the following three groups (with no more than one course from a group) Credit ​Minimum 7​

Group A

PHY 301- Classical Mechanics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 303- Classical Electrodynamics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 305 - Quantum Mechanics – I; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 307 - Electronics - II; Credit 4 (2:1:1)

Group B

PHY 302 - Statistical Physics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 304 - Condensed Matter Physics; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 306 - Quantum Mechanics – II; Credit 4 (3:1:0)
PHY 308 Advanced Experimental Physics - II; Credit 3 (1:0:2)

Group C

PHY 4XX/5XX* - Physics Elective; Credit 3 (3:0:0) ​(*For details see course catalogue)

List of courses related to the Minor degree in Physics for Engineering major
Course code
Title
Credit
PHY201
Fundamentals of Thermal Physics
4

 1. The Kinetic Theory of Gases Macroscopic and  microscopic description of matter, thermodynamic variables of a system, State function, exact and inexact differentials, Basic assumptions of the kinetic theory, Ideal gas approximation, deduction of perfect gas laws, Maxwell’s distribution law, root mean square and most probable speeds. Collision probability, Mean free path from Maxwell’s distribution. Degrees of freedom, equipartition of energy. Nature of intermolecular interaction : isotherms of real gases. van der-Waals equation of state.   
2. Transport Phenomena  Viscosity, thermal conduction and diffusion in gases. Brownian Motion: Einstein’s theory, Perrin’s work, determination of Avogardo number.   
3. Thermodynamics of Photon Gas  Spectral emissive and absorptive powers, Kirchoff’s law of blackbody radiation, energy density, radiation pressure. Stefan-Boltzmann law, Planck’s law   
4. First Law of Thermodynamics Zeroth law and the concept of temperature. Thermodynamic equilibrium, internal energy, external work, quasistatic process, first law of thermodynamics and applications including magnetic systems, specific heats and their ratio, isothermal and adiabatic changes in perfect and real gases.  
5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics and its Statistical Interpretation (a) Second law of thermodynamics: different formulations and their equivalence (b) Entropy: The statistical postulate. (c) Equilibrium of an isolated system: Temperature (d) Illustration: The Schottky defects. (e) Equilibrium of a system in a heat bath: Boltzmann distribution; Kinetic interpretation of the Boltzmann distribution.  
6. Thermodynamic Functions  Enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibbs’ free energies; Chemical potential, Maxwell’s relations; thermodynamic equilibrium and free energies.  
7. Change of State  Equilibrium between phases, triple point, Gibbs’ phase rule and simple applications. First and higher order phase transitions, The phase equilibrium and the ClausiusClapeyron equation,. JouleThomson effect, third law of thermodynamics  
8. Applications of Thermodynamics. (a) Heat engines and Refrigerators: Derivation of limits on efficiency from the laws of thermodynamics; Carnot cycle; realistic cycles for internal combustion engines, steam engines, and refrigeration (b) Thermodynamics of rubber bands: Gibbs free energy, Entropy (c). Paramagnetism: A paramagnetic solid in a heat bath. The heat capacity and the entropy. An isolated paramagnetic solid.  Negative temperature.

PHY202
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
4

1. Quantum and Classical Behavior 
a) Experiments with bullet, waves and electrons 
b) Probability Amplitude 
c) The two-slit interference pattern 
d) Identical particles 

2. Base States 
a) Filtering atoms with a Stern-Gerlach apparatus 
b) Base states 
c) Interfering amplitudes 
d) Transferring to different bases 
e) Base states of spin one-half particle 

3. Dependence of Amplitude on Time 
a) The Hamiltonian Matrix 
b) The Ammonia Maser 
c) Other Two State Systems: The Hydrogen Molecule, The Benzene Molecule, Neutrino 
d) Oscillations
e) The Pauli spin matrices and the Hamiltonian of a spin-half particle in an external 
f) magnetic field 
g) Generalization to N-state system 

4. Propagation in a Crystal Lattice 
a) States for an electron in a one-dimensional lattice 
b) An electron in a three-dimensional lattice 
c) Scattering by imperfections in the lattice 
d) Trapping by a lattice imperfection 
e) Semiconductors and the transistor 

5. Symmetry, Conservation Laws and Angular-Momentum 
a) Symmetry and conservation 
b) The conservation laws 
c) Polarized light 
d) The annihilation of positronium 
e) Entangled states and Bell’s theorem 

6. Dependence of Amplitude on Position 
a) Amplitudes on a line 
b) The wave function 
c) The Schrödinger equation in one dimension

PHY207
Abridge course for Minor students
4

PHY207 is a bridge course specially designed for students who have already taken PHY101 and PHY102 instead of PHY103 and PHY104. The course supplements and develops their understanding of Newtonian physics and classical electromagnetism. 
The content is as follows: 
Review of Newtonian mechanics 
Solving planetary motion using a personal computer
A brief introduction to Lagrangian formulation of mechanics
Review of simple harmonic motion
Introduction to coupled oscillators and normal modes
Introduction to special theory of relativity, space-time diagrams and four vectors
Review of electrostatics and magnetostatics
Review of Maxwell’s equation
Wave equation from Maxwell’s equation, plane wave solution, polarization
Light as an electromagnetic wave

PHY208
Advanced Experimental Physics I
3

PHY 208 is an advanced lab course which aims to offer an experiential learning through a wide range of experiments and projects based on Thermodynamics, Optics and Modern Physics.

PHY301
Classical Mechanics
4

Introduction to dynamical systems, degree of freedom, time evolution 
                 Lagrangian formulation of mechanics 
                 Noether's Theory: Symmetry and conservation laws 
                 Hamiltionian formulation of mechanics 
                 Phase space and Liouville's theorem: applications to statistical mechanics 
                 Poisson Bracket: Symmetry, rotation generators 
                 Small Oscillations: normal modes, normal coordinates, vibration of molecules 
                 Rotation and rigid body motion: Euler angles and applications

PHY302
Statistical Physics
4

1. The Fundamentals of Statistical Mechanics 
1. Introduction 
2. The Microcanonical Ensemble. 
3. Entropy and Temperature 
4. The Canonical Ensemble 
5. The Partition Function , Energy and Fluctuations, Entropy, Free Energy 
6. The Chemical Potential 
7. Grand Canonical Ensemble, Grand Canonical Potential, Extensive and Intensive Quantities 

2. Classical Gases. 
1. Ideal Gas, Equipartition of Energy, Boltzmann's Constant, Gibbs's Paradox 
2. Maxwell Distribution, Kinetic Theory 
3. Diatomic Gas, Interacting Gas, Mayer f Function, Virial Coecient 

van der Waals Equation of State, The Cluster Expansion. 
3. Quntum Statistical Mechanics 
1. The Postulate of Quantum Statistical Mechanics 
2. Density Matrix 
3. Ensembles in Quantum Statistical Mechanics 
4. The Third Law of Thermodynamics 
5. Fermi Systems, Bose Systems. 
4. Phase Transitions 
1. Liquid-Gas Transition, Phase Equilibrium, The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation,The Critical Point 
2. The Ising Model, Mean Field Theory, Critical Exponents, Validity of Mean Field Theory. 
3. Some Exact Results for the Ising Model, The Ising Model in d= 1 Dimensions 2d Ising Model. 
4. Landau Theory, Second Order Phase Transitions, First Order Phase Transitions, 
5. Landau-Ginzburg Theory, Correlations, Fluctuations.

PHY303
Classical Electrodynamics
4

Overview: This course is one step ahead towards understanding some oldest phenomena of nature that mankind has ever sought after since Benjamin Franklin’s “lightning” experiment in early eighteenth century. The course begins with discussion on basic theoretical framework of electrodynamics, the Maxwell’s equations and new phenomena with respect to field theoretical questions (energy, momentum of the field) and its application to establish optics as well as in sector of practical applications (wave guides and resonant cavities) are investigated thereon.  
Unit 1: Review of Maxwell’s equations, The Poynting vector, The Maxwellian stress tensor. Unit-2: Electromagnetic waves in vacuum, Polarization of plane waves, Electromagnetic waves in matter, frequency dependence of conductivity, frequency dependence of polarizability, frequency dependence of refractive index. Laws of Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic waves, Wave guides, boundary conditions, classification of fields in wave guides, phase velocity and group velocity, resonant cavities.   
 Unit-3: Moving charges in vacuum, gauge transformation, the time dependent Green function, The Lienard-Wiechert potentials, Lienard-Wiechert fields, application to fields- radiation from a charged particle, Antennas, Radiation by multipole moments, Electric dipole radiation, Complete fields of a time-dependent electric dipole, Magnetic dipole radiation.  
Unit-4: Lorentz transformations, Four vectors and four tensors, The field equations and the field tensor, Maxwell’s equations for covariant notation. Relativistic covariant Lagrangian formalism, Covariant Lagrangian formalism for relativistic point charges, The energy-momentum tensor, Conservation laws.

PHY304
Condensed Matter Physics
4

1. Invitation to Condensed Matter Physics 
2. Geometrical Description of Crystals and Scattering 
3. The Sommerfeld Free Electron Theory of Metals 
4. One Electron Theory and Energy Bands 
5. Lattice Dynamics of Crystals : Phonons

PHY305
Quantum Mechanics I
4

Overview  This course (Quantum Mechanics – I) aims to follow up the development in Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (PHY202) with more advanced topics in the fundamental subject of Quantum Mechanics, like representation theory and the Schrödinger, Heisenberg and Interaction (Dirac) pictures, Theory of Angular Momentum, and Time-Independent and Time-Dependent Approximation Methods like Perturbation theory and the Variational Principle. (Some advanced optional topics are marked with * in the syllabus.) It starts with reviewing the basic concepts and surprizes in Quantum Mechanics (QM) with the prototypical example of Photon Polarization in great detail. This course together with the next advanced course (PHY306 : Quantum mechanics – II) is based mainly on the set of celebrated Lecture Notes in QM by Gordon Baym, which formed the subject matter of the Graduate level QM course at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and hence would ideally prepare the students at a Graduate QM level, ready to go into research, and ideal for students interested to go into the 4th year extension into B.Sc. Research. It can also be of interest to certain students in Chemistry, Mathematics or some branches of Engineering, provided they have the necessary background.  
In addition to the above mentioned precursor course on Basic QM, a background in Basic Electromagnetism and Some Mathematical Methods relating especially to Linear Algebra would be useful, but not an absolute necessity.

PHY307
Electronics - II
4

Overview Digital Electronics is an advanced course for students in which rigorous scientific approach driven hands-on training is provided on handling and designing basic components in digital electronic devices.  The pre-requisite for this course is well-versed understanding of analog electronic systems as offered through courses like PHY206, PHY104 etc. At the end of this course, students are expected to demonstrate competency in handling and designing digital devices.   Detailed Syllabus Introduction of Digital Systems comparing Analog Systems, Logic Levels: Introduction to Number System: Binary, Decimal and BCD, Logic Gates and discussion up to 3/4 input, Truth Table, Boolean Algebra, Boolean Circuit simplifications using algebra, Handling an unknown digital circuit through Truth table, De Morgan’s Theorems, Sum of Products (SOP) & POS, Introduction of Karnaugh Map: Need beyond Truth Table, Circuits simplification through K-map, Parity Checker, K-map working examples, K-map simplification using Max terms, Don’t care condition using Max terms/Min terms, Comparator and Gate circuit as memory: NOT gate Latch, S-R Latch, Clock Input and Clocked S-R Latch as Flip-Flop, D-Flip Flop & J-K Flip-Flop, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer, Synchronous counters, Shift Register, Examples of comparative circuits between Synchronous counters and shift 
register, Difference between systematic and non-systematic counting: Introduction to Ripple Counter, Ripple counter concludes, Examples of Ripple and Synchronous Counters, D/A converter with examples, A/D converter with examples, Logic family: TTL and CMOS

PHY308
Advanced Experimental Physics - II
3

PHY 308 is a lab course offering an opportunity for hands-on learning through physics experiments based on various physics concepts covering Condensed matter physics and interaction of matter and energy.

List of courses related to the Minor degree in Physics for Non-Engineering Major.
PHY103
Fundamentals of Physics I
5

This is an introductory course for students majoring in physics or those who are planning to take physics as their minor.  It will provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian Methods, and to the Special Theory of Relativity.  

 Physics and its relation to other sciences.  
 Time and Distance. Frames of reference and the inertial frames of reference.  
  Vector Analysis, Coordinate systems, Dimensional Analysis  
 Newton’s laws of motion in one dimension.  
 Rotational invariance. Newtons’s laws of motion in three dimension  
 Conservation of energy and momentum.  
 Oscillations.  
 The Lagrangian method.  
 Rotation in two dimensions. Rotation in three dimensions.
 Central forces  
 The Special Theory of Relativity.  Space-Time and four vectors.  
 Accelerating frames of reference

PHY104
Fundamentals of Physics II
5

Vector Analysis 
Electrostatics: Electric Field, Divergence and Curl of Electrostatic Fields, Electric Potential, Work and Energy in Electrostatics, Conductors 
Potentials: Laplace's Equation, Method of Images, Multipole Expansion 
Electric Fields in Matter: Polarization, Field of a Polarized Object, Electric Displacement, Linear Dielectrics 
Magnetostatics: Lorentz Force Law, Biot-Savart law, Divergence and Curl of Magenetic Field, Magnetic Vector Potential 
Magnetic Fields in Matter: Magnetization, Field of a Magnetized Object, Auxiliary Field, Linear and Nonlinear Media 
Electrodynamics: Electromotive Force, Electromagnet Induction, Maxwell's Equations 
Conservation Laws: Charge and Energy, Momentum, Work 
Electromagnetic Waves: Waves in One Dimension, Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum, Electromagnetic Waves in matter

PHY201
Fundamentals of Thermal Physics
4

 1. The Kinetic Theory of Gases Macroscopic and  microscopic description of matter, thermodynamic variables of a system, State function, exact and inexact differentials, Basic assumptions of the kinetic theory, Ideal gas approximation, deduction of perfect gas laws, Maxwell’s distribution law, root mean square and most probable speeds. Collision probability, Mean free path from Maxwell’s distribution. Degrees of freedom, equipartition of energy. Nature of intermolecular interaction : isotherms of real gases. van der-Waals equation of state.   
2. Transport Phenomena  Viscosity, thermal conduction and diffusion in gases. Brownian Motion: Einstein’s theory, Perrin’s work, determination of Avogardo number.   
3. Thermodynamics of Photon Gas  Spectral emissive and absorptive powers, Kirchoff’s law of blackbody radiation, energy density, radiation pressure. Stefan-Boltzmann law, Planck’s law   
4. First Law of Thermodynamics Zeroth law and the concept of temperature. Thermodynamic equilibrium, internal energy, external work, quasistatic process, first law of thermodynamics and applications including magnetic systems, specific heats and their ratio, isothermal and adiabatic changes in perfect and real gases.  
5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics and its Statistical Interpretation (a) Second law of thermodynamics: different formulations and their equivalence (b) Entropy: The statistical postulate. (c) Equilibrium of an isolated system: Temperature (d) Illustration: The Schottky defects. (e) Equilibrium of a system in a heat bath: Boltzmann distribution; Kinetic interpretation of the Boltzmann distribution.  
6. Thermodynamic Functions  Enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibbs’ free energies; Chemical potential, Maxwell’s relations; thermodynamic equilibrium and free energies.  
7. Change of State  Equilibrium between phases, triple point, Gibbs’ phase rule and simple applications. First and higher order phase transitions, The phase equilibrium and the ClausiusClapeyron equation,. JouleThomson effect, third law of thermodynamics  
8. Applications of Thermodynamics. (a) Heat engines and Refrigerators: Derivation of limits on efficiency from the laws of thermodynamics; Carnot cycle; realistic cycles for internal combustion engines, steam engines, and refrigeration (b) Thermodynamics of rubber bands: Gibbs free energy, Entropy (c). Paramagnetism: A paramagnetic solid in a heat bath. The heat capacity and the entropy. An isolated paramagnetic solid.  Negative temperature.

PHY202
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
4

1. Quantum and Classical Behavior 
a) Experiments with bullet, waves and electrons 
b) Probability Amplitude 
c) The two-slit interference pattern 
d) Identical particles 

2. Base States 
a) Filtering atoms with a Stern-Gerlach apparatus 
b) Base states 
c) Interfering amplitudes 
d) Transferring to different bases 
e) Base states of spin one-half particle 

3. Dependence of Amplitude on Time 
a) The Hamiltonian Matrix 
b) The Ammonia Maser 
c) Other Two State Systems: The Hydrogen Molecule, The Benzene Molecule, Neutrino 
d) Oscillations
e) The Pauli spin matrices and the Hamiltonian of a spin-half particle in an external 
f) magnetic field 
g) Generalization to N-state system 

4. Propagation in a Crystal Lattice 
a) States for an electron in a one-dimensional lattice 
b) An electron in a three-dimensional lattice 
c) Scattering by imperfections in the lattice 
d) Trapping by a lattice imperfection 
e) Semiconductors and the transistor 

5. Symmetry, Conservation Laws and Angular-Momentum 
a) Symmetry and conservation 
b) The conservation laws 
c) Polarized light 
d) The annihilation of positronium 
e) Entangled states and Bell’s theorem 

6. Dependence of Amplitude on Position 
a) Amplitudes on a line 
b) The wave function 
c) The Schrödinger equation in one dimension

PHY208
Advanced Experimental Physics I
3

PHY 208 is an advanced lab course which aims to offer an experiential learning through a wide range of experiments and projects based on Thermodynamics, Optics and Modern Physics.

PHY301
Classical Mechanics
4

Introduction to dynamical systems, degree of freedom, time evolution 
                 Lagrangian formulation of mechanics 
                 Noether's Theory: Symmetry and conservation laws 
                 Hamiltionian formulation of mechanics 
                 Phase space and Liouville's theorem: applications to statistical mechanics 
                 Poisson Bracket: Symmetry, rotation generators 
                 Small Oscillations: normal modes, normal coordinates, vibration of molecules 
                 Rotation and rigid body motion: Euler angles and applications

PHY302
Statistical Physics
4

1. The Fundamentals of Statistical Mechanics 
1. Introduction 
2. The Microcanonical Ensemble. 
3. Entropy and Temperature 
4. The Canonical Ensemble 
5. The Partition Function , Energy and Fluctuations, Entropy, Free Energy 
6. The Chemical Potential 
7. Grand Canonical Ensemble, Grand Canonical Potential, Extensive and Intensive Quantities 

2. Classical Gases. 
1. Ideal Gas, Equipartition of Energy, Boltzmann's Constant, Gibbs's Paradox 
2. Maxwell Distribution, Kinetic Theory 
3. Diatomic Gas, Interacting Gas, Mayer f Function, Virial Coecient 

van der Waals Equation of State, The Cluster Expansion. 
3. Quntum Statistical Mechanics 
1. The Postulate of Quantum Statistical Mechanics 
2. Density Matrix 
3. Ensembles in Quantum Statistical Mechanics 
4. The Third Law of Thermodynamics 
5. Fermi Systems, Bose Systems. 
4. Phase Transitions 
1. Liquid-Gas Transition, Phase Equilibrium, The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation,The Critical Point 
2. The Ising Model, Mean Field Theory, Critical Exponents, Validity of Mean Field Theory. 
3. Some Exact Results for the Ising Model, The Ising Model in d= 1 Dimensions 2d Ising Model. 
4. Landau Theory, Second Order Phase Transitions, First Order Phase Transitions, 
5. Landau-Ginzburg Theory, Correlations, Fluctuations.

PHY303
Classical Electrodynamics
4

Overview: This course is one step ahead towards understanding some oldest phenomena of nature that mankind has ever sought after since Benjamin Franklin’s “lightning” experiment in early eighteenth century. The course begins with discussion on basic theoretical framework of electrodynamics, the Maxwell’s equations and new phenomena with respect to field theoretical questions (energy, momentum of the field) and its application to establish optics as well as in sector of practical applications (wave guides and resonant cavities) are investigated thereon.  
Unit 1: Review of Maxwell’s equations, The Poynting vector, The Maxwellian stress tensor. Unit-2: Electromagnetic waves in vacuum, Polarization of plane waves, Electromagnetic waves in matter, frequency dependence of conductivity, frequency dependence of polarizability, frequency dependence of refractive index. Laws of Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic waves, Wave guides, boundary conditions, classification of fields in wave guides, phase velocity and group velocity, resonant cavities.   
 Unit-3: Moving charges in vacuum, gauge transformation, the time dependent Green function, The Lienard-Wiechert potentials, Lienard-Wiechert fields, application to fields- radiation from a charged particle, Antennas, Radiation by multipole moments, Electric dipole radiation, Complete fields of a time-dependent electric dipole, Magnetic dipole radiation.  
Unit-4: Lorentz transformations, Four vectors and four tensors, The field equations and the field tensor, Maxwell’s equations for covariant notation. Relativistic covariant Lagrangian formalism, Covariant Lagrangian formalism for relativistic point charges, The energy-momentum tensor, Conservation laws.

PHY304
Condensed Matter Physics
4

1. Invitation to Condensed Matter Physics 
2. Geometrical Description of Crystals and Scattering 
3. The Sommerfeld Free Electron Theory of Metals 
4. One Electron Theory and Energy Bands 
5. Lattice Dynamics of Crystals : Phonons

PHY305
Quantum Mechanics I
4

Overview  This course (Quantum Mechanics – I) aims to follow up the development in Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (PHY202) with more advanced topics in the fundamental subject of Quantum Mechanics, like representation theory and the Schrödinger, Heisenberg and Interaction (Dirac) pictures, Theory of Angular Momentum, and Time-Independent and Time-Dependent Approximation Methods like Perturbation theory and the Variational Principle. (Some advanced optional topics are marked with * in the syllabus.) It starts with reviewing the basic concepts and surprizes in Quantum Mechanics (QM) with the prototypical example of Photon Polarization in great detail. This course together with the next advanced course (PHY306 : Quantum mechanics – II) is based mainly on the set of celebrated Lecture Notes in QM by Gordon Baym, which formed the subject matter of the Graduate level QM course at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and hence would ideally prepare the students at a Graduate QM level, ready to go into research, and ideal for students interested to go into the 4th year extension into B.Sc. Research. It can also be of interest to certain students in Chemistry, Mathematics or some branches of Engineering, provided they have the necessary background.  
In addition to the above mentioned precursor course on Basic QM, a background in Basic Electromagnetism and Some Mathematical Methods relating especially to Linear Algebra would be useful, but not an absolute necessity.

PHY306
Quantum Mechanics II
4

1. Advanced Angular Momentum Theory 
2. Advanced Topics in Perturbation Theory 
3. Identical Particles and Second Quantization 
4. Central Potentials and Potential Scattering Theory 
5. Interaction of Radiation with Matter 
6. Symmetries in Quantum Mechanics

PHY307
Electronics - II
4

Overview Digital Electronics is an advanced course for students in which rigorous scientific approach driven hands-on training is provided on handling and designing basic components in digital electronic devices.  The pre-requisite for this course is well-versed understanding of analog electronic systems as offered through courses like PHY206, PHY104 etc. At the end of this course, students are expected to demonstrate competency in handling and designing digital devices.   Detailed Syllabus Introduction of Digital Systems comparing Analog Systems, Logic Levels: Introduction to Number System: Binary, Decimal and BCD, Logic Gates and discussion up to 3/4 input, Truth Table, Boolean Algebra, Boolean Circuit simplifications using algebra, Handling an unknown digital circuit through Truth table, De Morgan’s Theorems, Sum of Products (SOP) & POS, Introduction of Karnaugh Map: Need beyond Truth Table, Circuits simplification through K-map, Parity Checker, K-map working examples, K-map simplification using Max terms, Don’t care condition using Max terms/Min terms, Comparator and Gate circuit as memory: NOT gate Latch, S-R Latch, Clock Input and Clocked S-R Latch as Flip-Flop, D-Flip Flop & J-K Flip-Flop, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer, Synchronous counters, Shift Register, Examples of comparative circuits between Synchronous counters and shift 
register, Difference between systematic and non-systematic counting: Introduction to Ripple Counter, Ripple counter concludes, Examples of Ripple and Synchronous Counters, D/A converter with examples, A/D converter with examples, Logic family: TTL and CMOS

PHY308
Advanced Experimental Physics - II
3

PHY 308 is a lab course offering an opportunity for hands-on learning through physics experiments based on various physics concepts covering Condensed matter physics and interaction of matter and energy.